A Government-owned corporation is termed as a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU). This term is used to refer to companies in which the government (either the federal Union Government or the many state or territorial governments, or both) own a majority (51 percent or more) of the company equity.
There are in all 251 PSU companies in India as on 2012. PSU’s are created by the Government of India to undertake commercial activities on behalf of Government of India. Several Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) under the aegis of Government of India regularly provide tremendous employment opportunities in various technical and management areas.
Some of the PSUs are:
Public Sector Enterprises (companies) are divided into 3 categories:
The Government of India established the Maharatna Companies in 2009. This Status raises a company’s investment ceiling from Rs. 1,000 crore to Rs. 5,000 crore. The Maharatna firms can now decide on investments of up to 15 per cent of their net worth in a project. On the other hand, the Navratna companies could invest up to Rs 1,000 crore without explicit government approval. The six criteria for eligibility as Maharatna are:
List of Maharatna:
Navratna was the title given originally to nine Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) identified by the Government of India in 1997 as “public sector companies that have comparative advantages”, giving them greater autonomy to compete in the global market so as to “support [them] in their drive to become global giants”. The number of PSEs having Navratna status has been raised to 16, the most recent addition being Oil India Limited.
To be qualified as a Navratna, the company must obtain a score of 60 out of 100. The score is based on six parameters which include net profit to net worth, total manpower cost to total cost of production or cost of services, PBDIT (Profit before depreciation, interest and taxes) to capital employed, PBDIT to turnover, EPS (Earning per Share) and Inter-Sectoral performance. Additionally, a company must first be a Mini-Ratna and have four independent directors on its board before it can be made a Navratna. The Navratna status gives privileges to enhance financial and operational autonomy and empowers to invest up to Rs. 1000 crores or 15% of their net worth on a single project without seeking government approval. In a year, these companies can spend up to 30% of their net worth not exceeding Rs. 1000 crores. They will also have the freedom to enter joint ventures, form alliances and float subsidiaries abroad.
List of Navratna Companies:
In addition, the government created another category called Miniratna. Miniratnas can also enter into joint ventures, set subsidiary companies and overseas offices but with certain conditions. In 2002, there were 61 government enterprises that were awarded Miniratna status. However, at present, there are 67 government enterprises that were awarded Miniratna status.
This designation applies to PSEs that have made profits continuously for the last three years or earned a net profit of Rs. 30 crore or more in one of the three years. These miniratnas granted certain autonomy like incurring capital expenditure without government approval up to Rs. 500 crore or equal to their net worth, whichever is lower.
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